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What is the difference between short-term memory and working memory?

1 Everyone deals with little short term memory. Learning to recognize a stimulus involves synaptic changes in the appropriate regions of the sensory association cortex that establish new circuit of neurons ( Carlson, 2013). When considering learning new things for example: it’s raining today and my car is outside Now, I’m going in the house it’s still raining in my car is still outside plays a part in recognizing and remembering. The ventral system makes that work which is associated with the cortex.

Carlson, N. (2013). Physiology of Behavior (11 ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

2 What is the difference between short-term memory and working memory? Which one is responsible for my forgetting where I park when I go to a shopping mall?

3 short-term memory that keep information we are using available until we no longer need it. Since I need to know where my car is parked a few hours after I parked it somewhere, this information needs to be transferred to short-term memory. What disorders are associated with memory impairment?

4 Retrograde amnesia is the opposite of anterograde amnesia. In retrograde amnesia an individual can’t remember events from their past that happened before their head injury or the development of a degenerative brain disease. The definition of retrograde amnesia is “amnesia for events that preceded some disturbance to the brain, such as a head injury or electroconvulsive shock” (Carlson, 2013, p. 459). Alzheimer’s disease is an example of a disease that causes retrograde amnesia.

Reference: Carlson, N. R. (2013). Physiology of behavior. (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

5 With Retrograde the memories lost from the recent memories starts to take place. I would think that older memories would actually be lost first. There’s also Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a poorly understood condition. If you develop it, you will experience confusion or agitation that comes and goes repeatedly over the course of several hours. You may experience memory loss in the hours before the attack, and you will probably have no lasting memory of the experience. Lastly, most people can’t remember the first three to five years of life. This common phenomenon is called infantile or childhood amnesia (“Amnesia”, 2005-2018).

Amnesia(2005-2018). Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health/amnesia#prevention

6 Anterograde amnesia is defined as “amnesia for events that occur after some disturbance to the brain, such as a head injury or certain degenerative brain diseases” (Carlson, 2013, p. 459). The interesting thing about this amnesia though is that the individual can remember all the events that happened in their life before the event or disease that caused the pure anterograde amnesia, but they can’t make new memories. The movie 50 First Dates was a light hearted attempt at covering this type of amnesia.

Reference: Carlson, N. R. (2013). Physiology of behavior. (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

7 Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined as a “psychological disorder caused by exposure to a situation of extreme danger and stress” (Carlson, 2013, p. 607). Individuals that suffer from PTSD have reoccurring flashbacks and/or dreams of the traumatic situation they encountered that feel like they are experiencing the traumatic event all over again. Individuals suffering from PTSD may find it hard to participate in social situations and encounter feelings of hopelessness; these individuals have poor mental health and usually poor physical health (Carlson, 2013). Men generally encounter more traumatic situations, but women are more likely to develop PTSD from experiencing a traumatic event (Carlson, 2013).

Reference: Carlson, N. R. (2013). Physiology of behavior. (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

8 Anxiety disorders are characterized by unrealistic, unfounded fear and anxiety ( In addition, anxiety disorders contribute to the occurrence of depressive and substance abuse disorders (Tye et al., 2011).Panic disorder causes episodic attacks of acute anxiety from a few seconds to a few hours. Generalized anxiety is excessive anxiety with difficult in controlling systems as distress and disruption happens in their life. Lastly, Social anxiety disorder is persistent with excessive fear being exposed to other people that lead to trying to avoid certain situations(Carlson,2013).

Reference: Carlson, N. R. (2013). Physiology of behavior. (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

9 Anxiety is a growing concerns for the college students I work with in psychotherapy. It seems like most people with anxiety have difficulty modulating symptoms without intervention as anxiety is one of the worst human emotions to feel. That brings us to the questions: Is anxiety an emotion? Thoughts? What research do we have about the brain to support that it is an emotion verses a fight/flight reaction triggered by sympathetic nervous system?

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