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NR 507 Midterm Exam (Version 9 Solutions)

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1. Question: The coronary ostia are located in the: 

2. Question: Which manifestations of vasoocclusive crisis are associated with sickle cell disease (SCD) in infants?

3. Question: Decreased lung compliance means that the lungs are demonstrating which characteristic?

4. Question: What is the life span of an erythrocyte (in days)?

5. Question: Infants are most susceptible to significant losses in total body water because of an infant’s: 

6. Question: Causes of hyperkalemia include: 

7. Question: Erythrocyte life span of less than 120 days, ineffective bone marrow response to erythropoietin, and altered iron metabolism describe the pathophysiologic characteristics of which type of anemia?

8. Question: The lung is innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system via which nerve?

9. Question: When an individual aspirates food particles, where would the nurse expect to hear decreased or absent breath sounds?

10. Question: Which T-lymphocyte phenotype is the key determinant of childhood asthma?

11. Question: What is the final stage of the infectious process?

12. Question: How is most of the oxygen in the blood transported?

13. Question: When a patient has small, vesicular lesions that last between 10 and 20 days, which sexually transmitted infection is suspected?

14. Question: An individual is more susceptible to infections of mucous membranes when he or she has a seriously low level of which immunoglobulin antibody?

15. Question: Which congenital heart defects occur in trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and Down syndrome?

16. Question: What is the functional unit of the kidney called?

17. Question: Which of the following is classified as a megaloblastic anemia?

18. Question: What are the abnormalities in cytokines found in children with cystic fibrosis (CF)?

19. Question: The only surface inside the nephron where cells are covered with microvilli to increase the reabsorptive surface area is called the: 

20. Question: Between which months of age does sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) most often occur?

21. Question: What is the primary site for uncomplicated local gonococci infections in men?

22. Question: Which organism is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection?

23. Question: The drug heparin acts in hemostasis by which processes?

24. Question: What is the primary cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn?

25. Question: An infant has a loud, harsh, holosystolic murmur and systolic thrill that can be detected at the left lower sternal border that radiates to the neck. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect?

26. Question: Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can occur if the mother: 

27. Question: Blood vessels of the kidneys are innervated by the: 

28. Question: What is the most common cause of insufficient erythropoiesis in children?

29. Question: If the sinoatrial (SA) node fails, then at what rate (depolarizations per minute) can the atrioventricular (AV) node depolarize?

30. Question: Hypersensitivity is best defined as a(an): 

31. Question: Which criterion is used to confirm a diagnosis of asthma in an 8-year-old child?

32. Question: How is most carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood transported?

33. Question: When the bladder accumulates 250 to 300 ml of urine, it contracts and the internal urethral sphincter relaxes through activation of the spinal reflex arc (known as the micturition reflex).

34. Question: Which cells have phagocytic properties similar to monocytes and contract like smooth muscles cells, thereby influencing the glomerular filtration rate?

35. Question: Which statement best describes a Schilling test?

36. Question: Fetal hematopoiesis occurs in which structure?

37. Question: Which disorder results in decreased erythrocytes and platelets with changes in leukocytes and has clinical manifestations of pallor, fatigue, petechiae, purpura, bleeding, and fever?

38. Question: What is the life span of platelets (in days)?

39. Question: What is the ratio of coronary capillaries to cardiac muscle cells?

40. Question: Which type of immunity is produced by an individual after either natural exposure to the antigen or after immunization against the antigen?

41. Question: The most common site of metastasis for a patient diagnosed with prostate cancer is which location?

42. Question: During an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, which leukocyte is activated?

43. Question: In which primary immune deficiency is there a partial-to-complete absence of T-cell immunity?

44. Question: Innervation of the bladder and internal urethral sphincter is supplied by which nerves?

45. Question: What effects do exercise and body position have on renal blood flow?

46. Question: Which blood cell type is elevated at birth but decreases to adult levels during the first year of life?

47. Question: It has been determined that a tumor is in stage 2. What is the meaning of this finding?

48. Question: Research supports the premise that exercise has a probable impact on reducing the risk of which cancer?

49. Question: Where in the respiratory tract do the majority of foreign objects aspirated by children finally lodge?

50. Question: What is the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia (IDA)?

51. Question: Which type of antibody is involved in type I hypersensitivity reaction?

52. Question: Which organ is stimulated during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)?

53. Question: Which cytokines initiate the production of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)?

54. Question: What is the major concern regarding the treatment of gonococci infections?

55. Question: What part of the kidney controls renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, and renin secretion?

56. Question: Examination of the throat in a child demonstrating signs and symptoms of acute epiglottitis may contribute to which life-threatening complication?

57. Question: The function of the foramen ovale in a fetus allows what to occur?

58. Question: Which compensatory mechanism is spontaneously used by children diagnosed with tetralogy of Fallot to relieve hypoxic spells?

59. Question: Perceived stress elicits an emotional, anticipatory response that begins where?

60. Question: Which term is used to identify the movement of gas and air into and out of the lungs?

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